Ransomware is a form of malware that targets your critical data and systems for the purpose of extortion. Ransomware is frequently delivered through spearphishing emails. After the user has been locked out of the data or system, the cyber actor demands a ransom payment. After receiving payment, the cyber actor will purportedly provide an avenue to the victim to regain access to the system or data. Recent iterations target enterprise end users, making awareness and training a critical preventive measure.
The U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) and US-CISA recommend these protections against the threat of ransomware.
- Employ a data backup and recovery plan for all critical information. Perform and test regular backups to limit the impact of data or system loss and to expedite the recovery process. Note that network-connected backups can also be affected by ransomware; critical backups should be isolated from the network for optimum protection.
- Use application white-listing to help prevent malicious software and unapproved programs from running. Application white-listing is one of the best security strategies as it allows only specified programs to run, while blocking all others, including malicious software.
- Keep your operating system and software up-to-date with the latest patches. Vulnerable applications and operating systems are the target of most attacks. Ensuring these are patched with the latest updates greatly reduces the number of exploitable entry points available to an attacker.
- Maintain up-to-date anti-virus software, and scan all software downloaded from the internet prior to executing.
- Restrict users’ ability (permissions) to install and run unwanted software applications, and apply the principle of “Least Privilege” to all systems and services. Restricting these privileges may prevent malware from running or limit its capability to spread through the network.
- Avoid enabling macros from email attachments. If a user opens the attachment and enables macros, embedded code will execute the malware on the machine. For enterprises or organizations, it may be best to block email messages with attachments from suspicious sources.
- Do not follow unsolicited Web links in emails.
Federal Government Cybersecurity Resources
Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States Secret Service
- Electronic Crimes Task Force: www.secretservice.gov/investigation
- Local Field Offices: www.secretservice.gov/contact/
Department of Homeland Security
- United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT): www.us-cert.gov
- NIST Cybersecurity Framework: www.nist.gov/cyberframework/
- NSA/IAD Top 10 Information Assurance Mitigations Strategies: www.iad.gov/iad/library/ia-guidance/iads-top-10-information-assurance-mitigationstrategies.cfm